"The Schiefspiegler (Oblique Telescope)" by Anton Kutter was reproduced and offered for sale in 1958 by Sky Publishing Corp. as "Bulletin A: Gleanings for ATMs." It is reproduced here with the permission of Sky Publishing Corp.

Permission for further distribution is not implied and must be requested from Sky Publishing Corp.

This web version of "The Schiefspiegler" is being prepared by Carl Anderson, Greg Gibbons and Mark Holm. All of the text, equations and figures have been converted and added to this site. We have not yet completed a thorough proof reading.

Any image with a blue border around it is a clickable link. Usually, the link leads to a higher resolution version of the same image.


Anton Kutter was German. He wrote "The Schiefspiegler" in English and the Sky and Telescope editors apparently did not rewrite it. As a result, some of the syntax and grammar has a distinctly German character. We have not changed that.

Where typographical errors were corrected by hand in the original, we have presented the corrected version, without the penciled in marks. Where typographical errors apparently remain, we have left them as they appear in the original.

Two different equations are numbered 25. The first is on page 20, the second is on page 21.


As do many Europeans, Kutter used the comma (,) as a decimal separator rather than the period (.). Like many Americans, he also used the double quotation mark (”) to mean two different things: seconds of arc and inches. Thus on page 6, for example, we see 4,8″ ⋅ 0,32 = 1”,54, meaning 48/10 seconds of arc times 32/100 equals 154/100 seconds of arc, and 2 1/2″, meaning 25/10 inches.

The original was composed on a typewriter, with hand drawn line drawings and halftoned photographs. The reproduction quality of the copies we worked from was not high. Except for the cover page, we have converted all of the text to HTML. Converting to HTML allows high quality text and much smaller files than scanned images. It is impossible to make the HTML version appear exactly like the original, but we have used formatting that should make it appear close to the original in most browsers. You may need to adjust text size, depending on your screen resolution and browser.

All of the figures and the cover page have been converted to .jpg images. Smaller and larger versions of each figure file are given. The smaller files load automatically in the pages. Click on an image to view the higher resolution, larger file. Nearly all of the equations were composed in Microsoft Word's equation editor and are presented as .gif images. A few, very simple equations are written out in HTML. The gif images, unfortunately are not size scalable. If you have difficulty reading them, please contact us.

The line drawings have been edited in Photoshop to remove "static" and to improve readablility of some unclear portions. The photographs were filtered with a function in Epson scanner software that greatly reduces the grainy effect of halftoning. They were further filtered and adjusted in Photoshop. In all cases, the goal was to improve the usability of the images while maintaining good fidelity to the orginals.

Several transcription errors in the web version were corrected on January 21, 2006. If you are working from an earlier version, you should replace it with this one. Some of the errors were significant.

Browser Quirks

Microsoft Internet Explorer does not always format the pages correctly. Sometimes it stops line wrapping in the middle of a paragraph. I have been able to correct this by clicking the Refresh button. (A better solution, in my opinion, is to use Mozilla Firefox instead of Internet Explorer. MDH)

All portions of this web site that are not derived directly from the original Bulletin A are copyright © 2005, Mark D. Holm.

ATMSite Logo    Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional Valid CSS!